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General Information ...


The Importance of a Sound Vaccination Program

Vaccination is a term with which every horse owner is familiar. A vaccination program, designed by a veterinarian, will help ensure the horses in a stable stay healthy and productive. Horses, just like people, are constantly exposed to bacterial and viral organisms. Many of these can cause mild to debilitating diseases.
A veterinarian can help design a health program to reduce exposure to infectious disease agents in a horse’s environment to lessen the incidence of illness. Disease control programs should be tailored to individual needs, with consideration given to ages, types, activities, and number of horses in the program.
The schedule below is a suggested vaccination schedule provided by the American Association of Equine Practitioners, and is based on generally accepted veterinary practices.

Vaccine

Foals/Weanlings

Yearlings

PerformanceHorses

PleasureHorses

Broodmares

Tetanus Toxoid

Nonvaccinated mare:
1st dose: 3-4 mos.
2nd dose: 4-5 mos.
Vaccinated mare:
1st dose: 6 mos.
2nd dose: 7 mos.
3rd dose 8-9 mos.

Annual

Annual

Annual

Annual, 4-6 wks. Prefoaling

Encephalomyelitis
(VEE, EEE, WEE)

Nonvaccinated mare:
1st dose: 3-4 mos.
2nd dose: 4-5 mos.
3rd dose: 5-6 mos.
Vaccinated mare:
1st dose: 6 mos.
2nd dose: 7 mos.
3rd dose: 8 mos.

Annual
In Spring

Annual
In Spring

Annual
In Spring

Annual, 4-6 wks. Prefoaling

Influenza

Inactivated Injectable Nonvaccinated mare:
1st dose: 6 mos.
2nd dose: 7 mos.
3rd dose: 8 mos.
Vaccinated mare:
1st dose: 9 mos.
2nd dose: 10 mos.
3rd dose: 11-12 mos.
Repeat at 3 mo. Intervals

Every 3 to 4 mos.

Every 3 to 4 mos.

Annual with added boosters prior to likely exposure

At least semiannual with one booster timed 4-6 weeks prefoaling

Rhinopneumonitis

(EHV-1 & EHV-4)

1st dose: 4-6 mos.
2nd dose: 5-7 mos.
3rd dose: 6-8 mos.
Repeat at 3 mo. Intervals

Every 3 to 4 mos.

Optional:
Biannual if elected

Optional: Biannual if elected

5th, 7th, 9th mo. Of gestation (inactivated EHV-1 vaccine)

West Nile Virus

 

Annual, spring

Annual, spring

Annual, spring

Annual, before breeding

Rabies

Nonvaccinated mare:
1st dose: 3-4 mos.
2nd dose: 12 mos.
Vaccinated mare:
1st dose: 6 mos.
2nd dose: 7 mos.
3rd dose: 12 mos.

Annual

Annual

Annual

 

Botulism, Potomac Horse Fever (PHF), Strangles & Rotavirus

These diseases are endemic; consult a veterinarian for use in specific areas.

Note: This information was provided by the American Association of Equine Practitioners and should be used as a basis in discussing specific needs with a veterinarian. His or her recommendations will be based on a variety of factors, including age, sex, type of horse, and geographic location. He or she will have insight into the diseases endemic to a region and the likelihood of disease outbreaks at specific times of year. Please pay special attention to the safety indications regarding vaccinations for pregnant mares.

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1. Rabies:
•Although rabies is infrequent in horses, it is a significant risk to people and is 100% fatal. It is therefore considered a core vaccine.

2. Tetanus:
•Tetanus is a progressive and often fatal disease caused by the bacteria Clostridium tetani, which is ubiquitous in the environment.
•The disease is caused by a neurotoxin that is produced when the bacteria infects wounds (especially puncture wounds and deep lacerations).
•It causes progressive “stiff” paralysis that can be fatal if not treated.
•While the disease is not contagious among horses or people, horses are very sensitive to the neurotoxin and therefore tetanus is considered a core vaccine.

3. Eastern Equine Encephalitis/Western Equine Encephalitis (EEE/WEE):
•These are neurologic diseases that cause a range of symptoms in horses and people including fever, lethargy, recumbency, seizures, mental dullness and death.
•They are transmitted by mosquitoes and other blood sucking insects from birds and rodents to horses or humans.
•They are NOT contagious from horse to horse, human to human or horse to human.
•The Northeast is considered endemic for these diseases and there have been deaths in horses in the recent past confirmed caused by EEE.
•The vaccines available are highly efficacious and very safe.

4. West Nile Virus:
•West Nile Virus causes neurologic disease similar to EEE and WEE
•It is 33% fatal in horse and surviving animals often have long term effects of the disease.
•Over 24,000 cases since 1999 in US horses. The number of new cases per year in horses continues to decrease (probably because we vaccinate so well!)
•The vaccines available are highly efficacious and very safe.
•NOTE: EEE/WEE, Tetanus and West Nile Virus is a combined vaccine product that we use regularly. Depending on your individual horse and risk factors, we are starting to recommend twice yearly vaccination more and more.

5. Equine Herpes Virus (EHV)/Rhinopneumonitis:
•Rhino is caused by Equine Herpes Virus (EHV). It is divided in to subtypes EHV-1 and EHV-4.
•It causes a variety of clinical disease, including abortion, weak or stillborn foals, acute neurologic disease and upper respiratory disease. This disease group has been very controversial in the last several years due to neurologic outbreaks.
•It is highly contagious from horse to horse via nasal secretions and can live in the environment for at least 14 days.
•The vaccines do NOT protect against the neurologic form of the disease. However, the vaccines may help reduce spread of the disease from horse to horse.

6. Influenza:
•Influenza causes similar signs to human flu. High fevers, lethargy, nasal discharge, cough.
•Influenza has many strains and sometimes the vaccine doesn't protect against them all. The vaccine is only protective for 4-6 months.
•It is highly contagious and is most common in horses that travel a lot and are exposed to new horses, or at show grounds, race-tracks, etc.
•NOTE: Influenza comes in a combination vaccine with Rhino. (Flu/Rhino)

7. Potomac Horse Fever:
•Caused by Neorickettsia risticii (formerly Ehrlichia risticii), this disease has a complex lifecycle, including snails and slugs. It is believed to be transmitted to horses through accidental ingestion of insects (mayflies, caddis flies, aquatic insects) who have ingested the organism in water. It is therefore more common in areas with water, snails, and aquatic insects.
•The disease is seasonal, worse in summer months, and is more common in areas South of Maine. However, recently there have been several suspicious cases in Maine.
•Clinical signs include fever, diarrhea, lethargy, colic, and laminitis. Unfortunately, the disease is often fatal.
•The vaccine has variable efficacy and is not known to have long lasting immunity.

8. Strangles:
•Caused by a bacteria, Streptococcus equi, strangles is characterized by high fever, thick mucopurulent nasal discharge (mucous and pus) and swelling and abscessing of the lymph nodes of the head and upper throat.
•The organism is persistent in the environment and is highly contagious from horse to horse.
•There are two types of vaccines. One is injectable (intramuscularly) and one is intranasal (squirted up the nose). Because of the different methods that these vaccines create immunity, they are not interchangeable. In other words, if your horse was previously vaccinated with the injectable form, then switching to the intranasal form would require an initial series of two vaccines.

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Miniature Horse Weight Chart

Would you like to know how much your miniature horse weighs? Maybe for medication or just curious? This table was pulled from World Equine Veterinary Review/Vol.3:No.3: '98.
Use a sewing tape measure to measure the heart girth and then consult the table below to find the approximate weight of your miniature horse.

The heart girth in inches = the body weight in pounds.
heart girth   30".... 69.33 lbs. 44"....253.85 lbs. 58"....438.37 lbs
  31".... 82.51 lbs. 45"....267.03 lbs. 59"....451.55 lbs.
  32".... 95.69 lbs. 46"....280.21 lbs. 60"....464.73 lbs.
  33"....108.57 lbs. 47"....293.39 lbs. 61"....477.91 lbs
  34"....122.05 lbs. 48"....306.57 lbs. 62"....491.09 lbs.
  35"....135.23 lbs. 49"....319.75 lbs. 63"....504.27 lbs
  36"....148.41 lbs. 50"....332.93 lbs. 64"....517.45 lbs.
  37"....161.59 lbs. 51"....346.11 lbs. 65"....530.63 lbs.
  38"....174.77 lbs. 52"....359.29 lbs. 66"....543.81 lbs.
  39"....187.95 lbs. 53"....372.47 lbs. 67"....556.99 lbs
  40"....201.13 lbs. 54"....385.65 lbs. 68"....570.17 lbs.
  41"....214.31 lbs. 55"....398.83 lbs. 69"....583.35 lbs.
  42"....227.49 lbs 56"....412.01 lbs.  
  43"....240.67 lbs 57"....425.19 lbs.  

 

Here is another weight system
shoulder to but Measure around the girth (Girth).
Measure from the point of shoulder to point of buttock (Length) in one straight line.
now use this formula...
Girth x Girth x Length = ?
divided ? by 300 = weight of your horse in pounds.
EXAMPLE - Lets say that your horse is 36" around the girth, and 48" in length.
formula would look like...
36 x 36 x 48 = 62208.
62208 divided by 300 = 207.36 pounds.

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Worming info coming soon

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Coat Color info coming soon

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